Five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come.
Now it is important to put it all into right context. According to How Can We Understand the Prophecies, the prophets see the history from their contemporary. The revelation was written by John when he was a prisoner of Patmos in the years 95 – 96 AD. This is crucial to gaining a proper understanding of this prophecy. To understand which kingdoms are in question, I think we must first go to the book of Daniel chapter 2 and look at Nebuchadnezzar’s dream.
Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream, Chapter 2. a) head of gold, verse 32, explained as Babylon verse 38 b) breast and arms of silver, verse 32, not explained c) belly and thighs of brass, verse 32, not explained d) legs of iron, feet of iron/clay, verse 33 not explained, changes character e) stone cut out, without hands, verse 34, explained as the kingdom of God verse 44
This is the story of Daniel’s contemporary with the kingdoms that will have a direct and destructive influence on God’s people, be it Abraham’s carnal descendants or his spiritual descendants. Daniel sees the story unfold from his time and to the second coming of Jesus when the eternal kingdom of God is to be established. That we must take Daniel contemporary as our starting point, I think, is crucial to the understanding of these prophecies in the book of Daniel. But it is not only in the book of Daniel that it is important, it is equally important and relevant to use the contemporary concept in the understanding of Revelation where John receives revelations that are direct parallels to the book of Daniel.
According to Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, and Daniel’s vision that he received later, there will be no room for other kingdoms or powers than those presented in these prophetic dreams and the visions they received, precisely because they extend from the year 604 BC. and all the way to the second coming of Jesus, and the creation of God’s eternal kingdom.
There is another prerequisite we must take into account and it is that the area the prophet Daniel is concerned about is the Middle East and Europe, where God’s people lived in Daniel’s time. It is somewhat different as we approach the end times because then many of God’s faithful people flee Europe and settle in the new world, which eventually gives a new nation the opportunity to develop completely according to the prophecy. I think it is therefore important for the understanding of Revelation 17,10-11 in particular to explain what or which powers the feet and toes in Daniel 2,41-44 represent. Even though there is no new kingdom or kingdoms, both the toes and the little horn follow the military Rome as a result of the change that is happening with the Roman Empire. The little horn is, according to what we have seen previous, the papacy, which is the religious-political phase of the Roman Empire, and the ten toes are the ten Aryan tribes that divided the Western Empire between them after the fall of the Roman Empire. These Aryan tribes today constitute what is modern Europe and are forming the of the European Union. Are we to understand that the Ten Toes is an attempt to unite Europe? The prophecy tells us that these toes, and the horns, will try to unite to restore military-political Rome, without success.
When we come toward the end of the time of these kings we are in the end time, and I will cover it with Daniel 2,44 which says that in the days of these kings shall the God of Heaven set up a kingdom… which is the same as the second coming of Jesus. I also believe that the ten horns in Revelation 17,3.7 are the same powers that we find in Daniel 2,41, which I believe Revelation 17,12 confirms through the ten horns… //… power as kings one hour. That this also happens in the end time appears in verse 14 where it says that they will make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb shall overcome them.
We must read Nebuchadnezzar’s dream in Daniel 2 together with Daniel 7, Daniel 8 and Revelation 17, and then I think as I said in the introduction that we must also take into account that God himself chose a people, Abraham’s descendants, who should be his people above all the nations of the earth. I believe this must be the basis for understanding these prophecies. The fact that God chose Abraham, and through him his carnal and spiritual descendants, is the reason why the devil has persecuted God’s people, a people who have been hated by the world ever since they were in Egypt and were enslaved.
Now, in the end times, it is they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus (Revelation 14,12) who are the seed of Abraham and the people of God.
Daniel’s first dream of the same kingdoms, chapter 7. a) lion with eagle wings, verse 4, explained as Babylon 2,38 b) bear with three ribs in the mouth, verse 5, not explained c) leopard with four wings and four heads, verse 6, not explained d) a fourth beast dreadful and terrible, strong exceedingly with great iron teeth, verse 7, not explained, changes character e) judgment scene, the Son of man was given the dominion, verses 9-14, explained as the kingdom of God Daniel 2,44
Daniel sees the same kingdoms that Nebuchadnezzar dreamed about, but they are given in the form of new symbols that are parallel to Daniel 2. The focus in Daniel 7 is turned more in the direction of the fourth beast, which clearly appears in verses 19 and 20. Even if there are clear indications that the fourth beast will change character in chapter 2, it is firstly here in chapter 7 that we really see the change the fourth beast undergoes. Even though it is implicit in Daniel 2 that there will be a change with the fourth beast, more emphasis is placed on the little horn that comes up between the ten horns. Here in chapter 7, the beast changes from being a military-political, power to becoming a religious-political, power. But the last scene in Daniel 7 is similar to that in Daniel 2. God’s eternal kingdom will be created while the fourth beast rules over the whole world.
Daniel’s second dream of the same kingdoms, chapter 8. a) omitted from the prophecy because it is just before Babylon is conquered b) a ram with two horns, verse 3, explained as Medo-Persia 8,20 c) goat with a notable horn, verse 5, explained as Greece 8,21 d) a little horn that waxed exceedingly great, verse 9, not explained, changes character e) the sanctuary is to be cleansed, verse 14, explained as the kingdom of God 2,44
In chapter 8, Daniel once again sees the same kingdoms given with new and parallel symbols. Babylon is for natural reasons no longer included in the prophecies as Daniel sees this in the present time. It is only one kingdom that is not named in the Bible, and it is the kingdom that is symbolized here with d) the little horn. The focus in Daniel chapter 8 is on the fourth beast. If we read verses 8 and 9 in chapter 8 carefully, we will see that what Daniel 2,33 (The legs were of iron, the feet partly of iron and partly of clay) and Daniel 7,7 (After this I saw visions at night, and behold, it was a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, exceedingly strong. It had large iron teeth. It devoured, crushed and trampled down the rest with its feet. It was different from all the animals that had been before it, and it had ten horns) emphasized about the fourth beast is not mentioned here in chapter 8, because here the vision jumps directly to the little horn that Daniel 7,8 mentions as… another little horn …
And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant [land]. Daniel 8,9
We see in verse 8 that Greece is divided, and then the story jumps all the way to the time when the fourth beast has changed character. In other words, the military-political phase of the fourth beast is skipped, and we are thrown right into the religious-political phase. Although the military-political phase causes many of Gods people problems, persecutes them, and kills them, the political-religious phase will far exceed the political-military phase in its persecution and killing of God’s faithful people.
Many people read this as if the little horn comes out of one of the four horns in verse 8 but the expression out of one of them points back to the four winds of heaven that end verse 8. The little horn comes out one of the four winds of heaven, and we can even find out from which direction it comes. It says that the little horn grew large to the south and to the east and to the glorious land. Seen through Daniel’s eyes, Jerusalem is the starting point for his descriptions of directions. He sees everything from where Jerusalem is, and when it grows to the south and east, it means that the little horn has its origin in the northwest seen from Jerusalem.
Those who interpret this to mean that it is from one of the four horns the little horn comes, lay down guidelines that it is Antiochus IV Epiphanes we are talking about, something we have previously seen is wrong. Many also interpret the hosts of heaven in verse 10 to be Gods angles, which in turn implies that we are talking about Lucifer’s fall in heaven. When this verse is fulfilled, we are in the Christian age because the little horn rules the world, and it is the religious-political phase of the Roman Empire. What is meant by the hosts of heaven in this verse must be the Christians who have been seduced.
Through these three chapters in Daniel, we have been served the story with different symbols, but all three chapters tell the same story. We have also gradually acquired the names of three of the four kingdoms, which are Babylon, Medo-Persia and Greece. The fact that the fourth kingdom is not named probably has its reason, but we know from history that this was the Roman Empire, and it was this empire that was the world power in John´s contemporary. We also know from Daniel that the fourth beast will eventually change character, and that this beast in its religious-political phase will receive a mortal wound but re-emerge with full religious and political power.
These three prophecies in chapters 2, 7 and 8 complement each other as the story goes from the time of Daniel until God establishes his kingdom. In Revelation 17,7-11, John is told the following: And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns. The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. And here [is] the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, [and] the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
In order to gain a full and complete understanding of these verses, I think we need to take a closer look at verses 1 and 3 in Revelation 17, and that we need to take a look at Daniel 2,44: And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed … These kingsverse refers to a) the ten toes on the statue in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream – which Daniel uses three verses to explain – which I believe shows the importance of these toes, and to b) these in Revelation 17,14 which in turn point backwards to the ten kings or the ten horns in verse 12 which in verse 13 give their power to the beast.
Revelation 17,1 tells us about the whore, who here is the fallen church. In verse 3 we learn that the woman is sitting on a scarlet coloured beast, which I believe is the devil. The beast cannot be one of the seven kingdoms for no one, not even the woman can sit/ride on herself. We also learn that the beast has seven heads and ten horns. These are the seven world powers that persecute God’s people throughout history from the time of Abraham until the return of Jesus, and the ten nations that in the end times are trying to unite Europe into the military-political Rome, and these ten nations are the same kingdoms as the ten toes in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream. Verses 4, 5 and 6 give us characteristics of the woman that are not to be mistaken. The woman in these verses is thus the unclean, fallen church, and the beast is here a picture of the devil, and the seven horns are seven nations or empires that have gone, and go, the devil’s errand in his persecution of God’s people.
Verse 9 gives us a clue as to where in the world this woman has her haunt. The city of Rome has been identified as the city of the seven mountains or hills; Capitoline Hill, Palatine Hill, Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, Esquiline Hill, Viminal Hill and Quirinal Hill. Now there is not enough information in this verse alone to interpret the seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth as Rome. There are many cities that are located by, or that are built on seven mountains, Bergen, in Norway, is also located at seven mountains. But if we read this verse together with the fact that the apostles and the first Christians called Rome Babylon, we can be sure that it is Rome we are talking about. In addition, the whore is described in this chapter as Babylon.
If we then use the same principle as Daniel does when he tells Nebuchadnezzar in chapter 2 that he is the head of gold, which means that it is not Nebuchadnezzar that the prophecy worries about but the kingdom of Babylon, because the king represents his kingdom or empire, then we will see that the woman sitting on the seven mountains is not only the Catholic Church, but the woman here represents her empire, the Roman Empire in its entirety.
Verse 10 is the most important verse for understanding who we are dealing with, and to get it right we must also here set the time for John’s contemporaries, (the years 95-96 when he sat on Patmos). It says in verse 10 that they are also seven kings (NIV 1984). The word they refer to the seven heads in verse 3 and in verse 9. Seven kings are also seven kingdoms.
Then the angel tells John that five are fallen. This must mean that there must have been five nations or empires that have had a direct destructive influence on God’s people throughout history when John receives this vision. After this the angel gives us another clue, and one is, that is, while John was alive, and he died approx. year 105 AD. In other words, the one who is, is the sixth in the chronology of Revelation 17. In other words, it was the sixth beast that ruled the world at the time John lived and wrote Revelation, and the power that ruled the world in John’s time, was as we know the Roman Empire. We can thus set up the following overview:
A) Revelation 17,10, beginning in the time of John and towards the end time, and with the kingdom described as follows:
one is, the sixth in chronology, John´s contemporary (year 95-96 AD), the Roman Empire, changes from being military-political to becoming religious-political, giving rise to modern Europe. Gets deadly wound towards the end of the Middle Ages. the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space, the seventh in chronology, the beast from the earth, it is logical and natural that both beasts from chapter 13 are included because they are mentioned this way a beast and another beast respectively which are covariations of the same expression, appear when the beast from the sea is mortally wounded, and is the United States.
However, many choose to divide the Roman Empire into two independent kingdoms, the military Rome and the religious Rome, thereby establishing the papacy as the seventh beast, but it may be impossible for the papacy to be the seventh beast. I mean this is problematized by what verse 10 says about the time aspect of the seventh beast: and when he (the seventh beast) cometh, he must continue a short space. The crucial point is that the seventh kingdom should only continue a short space.
The question is whether the Roman Empire must be considered as one kingdom, two kingdoms or possibly three kingdoms. If the Roman Empire is considered two or three kingdoms, then the time aspect comes in as a disturbing element, because it should only be a short space. Although the military Rome fell in the year 476 AD. we count the religious Rome from the year 538 AD. If religious Rome were to be the seventh kingdom, it would have the longest reign of these kingdoms, and it harmonizes terribly poorly with a short space in my opinion.
B-1) Then we look at what kingdoms we have from John’s time and to Daniel’s time.
one is, John’s contemporaries (year 95 AD) see above is fallen, the fifth in chronology, years 331-168 BC. Greece is fallen the fourth in chronology, years 539-331 BC. Medo-Persia is fallen, the third in chronology, years 605-539 BC. Babylon (The Neo-Babylonian Empire)
We have then covered the time from the time of Daniel until the second coming of Christ but lack the first two empires that have had a devastating influence on God’s people. These are the two kingdoms that were before the time of Daniel. Here it is important to notice what Isaiah and Zechariah say:
For thus saith the Lord GOD, My people went down aforetime into Egypt to sojourn there; and the Assyrian oppressed them without cause. Isaiah 52,4
This verse alone is enough to tell which empires are in question as the first two that oppressed God’s people. But it is not good enough just to refer to ne verse, so then we can include the following texts as well:
And it shall come to pass in that day, [that] the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. Isaiah 11,11
Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and behold four horns. And I said unto the angel that talked with me, What [be] these? And he answered me, These [are] the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. Zechariah 2,1-2
Zechariah lived and worked between 520 and 475 BC. while Medo-Persia was the dominant empire. It is therefore extra interesting that Zechariah mentions that these [are] the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. It fits well with what Daniel and John write about the kingdoms that will oppress God’s people.
B-2) The first two nations in the chronology then become:
is fallen, the second in chronology, Samaria was conquered by Assyria in 722 BC. and most of the ten tribes were either killed or deported to a land far away where they eventually disappeared. The history of the Old Assyrian Empire dates back to about 2000 BC. and was conquered by Babylon in the year 609. is fallen, the first in chronology, Egypt, the first kingdom that had any devastating effect on the children of Israel, or the people of God, was Egypt where Israel was slaves. Egypt is also the first atheist kingdom mentioned in the Bible.
The chronology of Daniel 2, 7, 8 and Revelation 17,10.
Daniel 2, Daniel 7 Daniel 8 Revelation 17.10 Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned 1) Is fallen Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned 2) Is fallen Babylon, Babylon Not mentioned 3) Is fallen Not named Not named Medo-Persia 4) Is fallen Not named Not named Greece 5) Is fallen Not named Not named Not named 6) One is, John´s contemporary Not mentioned Not mentioned Not mentioned 7) The other is not yet come
The Roman Empire: The fourth beast in the book of Daniel, and the sixth in Revelation, which is called one is, is the kingdom that ruled in the time of John. This empire changed from a military-political power to a religious-political power, which after a death wound has re-emerged with religious-political power and is the sixth king in Revelation 17:10. The Roman Empire thus appears here as one king.
We then have the following kingdoms and powers in Revelation 17,10:
• 1) Egypt • 2) Assyria • 3) Babylon • 4) Medo-Persia • 5) Greece • 6) Roman Empire • 7) USA
USA: This is the beast that rose from the earth, and it will change as radically as the beast from the sea. From being a nation that loves freedom, the United States will be the force that will ensure that everyone worships the first beast.
What or who is the eighth?
And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. Revelation 17,11
First we must take into account the fact that it is a power that is greater than the Catholic Church, and that is behind all the misery in the world. It is Satan. Although Daniel focuses mostly on the religious-political phase of the Roman Empire, this beast gets its power from Satan. No earthly realm has power and authority in itself, absolutely none.
As for verse 11 where it says: And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition, I think the choice of translation is wrong, or rather perhaps made with willingness to bring out a particular meaning that may not be implicit in the part that reads as follows: and is of the seven.
I believe that the power to which this verse refers imitates Christ, and at the same time the text of this verse is a paradox. There are seven kingdoms, but here it is claimed that this beast is the eighth king or kingdom, and at the same time it is of the seven. This is the paradox, the eighth kingdom does not exist, but it is the devil who camouflages himself in this way by always imitating Christ. Our Saviour, Jesus Christ, thus presents Himself in Revelation 1,11 him which is, and which was, and which is to come. It is exactly the same way that the eighth is presented here.
The fact that the beast goeth into perdition is a clue that leads to the devil, and only to him. The translation is off, I think, as I said above, is a specific choice to get a specific meaning, and which is just one of many options. As we will see below, there are many other translations of this word that are more plausible. The key words here are 2) thêrion, (dangerous animal) 8) autos, (self) 11) kai (and) and 12) ek (<ut> av)
Word by word: 1) And 2) the beast 3) that 4) was, 5) and 6) is not, 8) even he 10) is 9) eighth 11) and 14) is 12) of 13) (the) seven …
1) kai; correlative concomitant conjunction; and, also, as well as, even, but, then, yes 2) to; specific article neuter singular nominative + thêrion; noun neuter singular; wild animals, (wild) animals but it is not only with these two words that it can be translated. In a figurative sense, a brute can also be used. However, this does not come out so well in the translations. Regardless of the translation, thêrion is the main character in this verse. 3) ho; relative pronoun neuter singular nominative; this, that, he, (the one) as 4) ên; verb 3. person singular imperfect active indicative; was 5) kai; correlative concomitant conjunction; and, also, as well as, even, but, then, yes 6) ûk; particle asking, (a primitive word, the absolute negative in the sense of not) + estin; verb 3. person singular present active indicative; is 7) kai; correlative concomitant conjunction; and, also, as well as, even, but, then, yes 8) autos*; personal pronoun intensive masculine singular nominative; he (himself), the (same), himself 9) ogdoos; adjective masculine singular accusative positive; eighth 10) estin; verb 3. person singular present active indicative; is 11) kai**; correlative concomitant conjunction; and, also, as well as, even, but, then, yes 12) ek***; preposition in genitive; (out) of, from, 13) tôn; specific article female genitive + hepta; adjective female plural accusative positive; seven 14) estin; verb 3. person singular present active indicative; is
An intensive pronoun is used in a sentence to refer to another noun, called antecedent, to emphasize it. This may be the subject of a sentence or an object and is usually presented immediately after the deduction of the sentence. An intensive pronoun functions in the same way as the reflective pronoun, except it only emphasize something, and are therefore not necessary in a sentence. Antecedent is a part of a sentence with a logical form. In a sentence of the logical form, A refers to B (if A then B) A is called the antecedent and B the consequence.
* autos StrongEC.: G0846 autos, ow-tos’; the reflexive pronoun self, used (alone or in the compare heautou (G1438)) of the third person, and (with the proper personal pronoun) of the other persons: her, it (-self) one, the other, (mine) own, said, ([self-], the) same, ([him-, my-, thy-]) self, [your-] selves, she, that, their (-s), them ([-selves]), there [-at, -by, -in, -into, -of, -on, -with], they, (these) things, this (man), those, together, very, which
Definition of autos: The pronoun self, as used (in all persons, genders, numbers) to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence. Emphatic: showing or giving emphasis; expressing something forcibly and clearly. Synonyms: vehement; impetuous; fierce; furious, firm; wholehearted; forceful; powerful; forceful; strong; sharply, forcible; with compulsion; forceful; coercion, energetic; vigorous; fit; powerful; rampant; potent, direct; autos points back to thêrion.
** kai G2532 kai, kahee; apparently a primitive particle, having a copulative (cohesive – side ordering) and sometimes also a cumulative force, accumulation, collecting, which accumulates gradually, escalates, builds up; and, also, even, so, then, too, etc.; often used in connection or composition with other particles or small words:- and, also, both, but, even, for, if, indeed, moreover, or, so, that, then, therefore, when, yea, yet. It is more than interesting that the conjunction kai is cumulative, and adds the meaning escalates as one of several possible translations. Kai points back to thêorin and autos.
*** Ek StrongEC G1537, ek; or ex (G1802-a); Although both, autos and kai provide clear guidance for how to approach thêorin, the most important word to understand who we are dealing with in Revelation 17,11 is the word ek.
Ek StrongEC.: G1537 ek; or ex (G1802-a); a primitive preposition denoting origin the point whence motion or action proceeds, from,out (of place, time or cause; literal or figurative; direct or remote): after, among, x are, at, betwixt, 1) beyond (by the means of) 2a) exceedingly above 2b) abundantly above, for (-th), from (among, forth, up), + grudgingly, + heartily, x heavenly, x hereby, + very highly, in, -ly, (because, by reason) of, off (from), on, out among (from, of), over, since, x thenceforth, through, x unto, x vehemently, with (-out). Often used in composition with completion.
The point whence motions or action proceeds: The verb proceed is explained this way: begin or continue a course of action.
1) Beyond: behind; underlying; outside; on the other side.
2a) Exceedingly above: largely over; immensely raised above; abundantly raised over.
2b) Abundantly above: high raised above.
On one hand, with regard to the expression of the seven, the following can be said, from SDA Bible Commentary vol. 7. In the Greek text we consider here, there is no article in front of the word eighth, which in itself lays the groundwork for the eighth beast to be the original power behind the other seven heads, and thus something more than just a new head.
On the other hand, the Greek word for eight/eighth which refers back to the beast in Revelation chapter 17 is a masculine word in Greek, and for that reason it cannot refer to a head, which in Greek is a female word.
As usual, there are verses that are comparable, even in this case where there is doubt about the translation of the word ek. Here in Revelation 17,11 is the text: The beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition. Here is ek (G1537.1) translated to is of.
In Matthew 1,18 we find the following comparable text: Now the birth of Jesus Christ was in this way: when his mother Mary was going to be married to Joseph, before they came together the discovery was made that she was with child by the Holy Spirit, (Basic English 1964).
Here is the same Greek word ek (G1537.1) translated to wood. As we see, G1537.1, which is the genitive form of ek, is also used in connection with who had made Mary with child. According to the text in Matthew 1,18, it was by the Holy Spirit that Mary became pregnant. Then we must ask ourselves whether the Holy Spirit is a part of Maria, or whether this is a power that is outside, behind, high above … … Mary. The answer is self-evident. The Holy Spirit is part of the triune deity, and therefore something that is much, much greater than any human being, including Mary.
Also in Matthew 12,37 we find a comparable text: For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.. Here, too, the Greek word ek is used in the inflectional form G1537.1, and also here, as in Matthew 1,18, it is translated with by, which makes sense. It would be a more or less meaningless verse if the translators had chosen is of in this verse. It is when the translators choose to use is of in Revelation 17,11 that it begins to become both inconsistent and unsustainable.
It is all about the primitive preposition ek which indicates, designates or describes what or who is the origin of, or the origin of, an event. Put into its context, it will indicate: a) who is behind in the sense of giving his power to others, as in this case is to the papacy; or that the person in question – the eighth – is underlying, outside or on the other side (of) in the sense that this is another and/or a greater power than the papacy, or also b) that the one in question is largely over; immensely raised above; abundantly raised over or high raised above the other seven kings, in the sense that this is a far greater and more influential power.
Here it is quite obviously a parody, and at the same time a paradox. There are seven kingdoms, but here this beast is the eighth kingdom, and at the same time as it is of the seven. This is the paradox, the eighth kingdom does not exist, but the devil disguises himself in this way, (see also Revelation 17,8). The fact that the beast goes into perdition is a clue that leads to the devil.
The beast that was, and is not, is itself also the eighth, and is of the seven, is the eighth in the chronology. This is an imitation of Revelation 1,8 where Jesus says about himself: which is, and which was, and which is to come: We know that this power puts its lie as close to the truth as possible. Revelation 17,11 refers back to verse 8 where it says: The beast you sawest was and is not… and refers to the beast from the bottomless pit in Revelation 11,7, and the scarlet coloured beast in Revelation 17,3. The eighth is therefore the devil.